GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

What is GATE

The Global Atmospheric Research Program's (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was conducted in the summer of 1974. One of the central objectives of GATE was to understand the scale interactions between convective activity and large-scale weather systems (ICSU/WMO, 1972); i.e., to better understand the mechanism or mechanisms by which deep cumulus convection is organized by the synoptic or large-scale motions and how the resulting convective activity affects the synoptic motions that can be resolved in large-scale models. Phase III of GATE covers the period from 00 GMT 30 August to 24 GMT 18 September.

The data residing at Colorado State University (CSU)came originally from Prof. Michio Yanai's group at UCLA, which were objectively analyzed by Esbensen and Ooyoma of Oregon State University. The variables were gridded on 1x1 degree square grid box, covering an area of 9x9 degree square. There are 19 layers in the vertical. See gate.rad file for the coordinate information.

About the Dataset Files

The format of files shown below can be found in README.GATE. It is advisable to download and "save to file" the datafiles with your browser as some are over 2MB in size. All files below may also be retrieved via the Data link above.
  • Moist static energy, GATE.H
  • Saturation moist static energy, GATE.HS
  • Vertical velocity in pressure coordinate, GATE.OMG
  • Water vapor mixing ratio, GATE.Q
  • Apparent heat source, GATE.Q1
  • Apparent moisture sink, GATE.Q2
  • Radiative heating rate as calcualted by Cox and Griffith (1979), gate.rad
  • Dry static energy, GATE.S
  • Temperature, GATE.T
  • X-component wind, GATE.U
  • Y-component wind, GATE.V
  • Vertical vorticity, GATE.VOR
  • Outgoing longwave radiation fluxes can be read from NCAR mass storage using murakami-olr.F
  • Horizontal advection of temperature, gate.Htemp_sui
  • Horizontal advection of water vapor mixing ratio, gate.Hqv_sui
  • Sea surface temperature, GATE.daily-sst
  • Other help information can be found in README.gate.rad and README.GATE

    At CSU, we have used this data set for single column modeling, as reported by Pan (1995), entitled "Development and application of a prognostic cumulus parameterization." For more information, please contact Dr. D.-M. Pan,

    We also used the dataset for cloud-resolving modeling. The results are published in Xu and Randall (1996; J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 53, 3710-3736). For a reprint of this paper, please contact Dr. Kuan-Man Xu,

    Some interesting results from this modeling study can be found here. The horizontal-time cross-sections of surface precipitation rate ( - on anaconda), outgoing longwave radiation fluxes ( and integrated liquid water+ice mixing ratio ( are shown.